Newmarket speed dating

See Article History Horse racing, sport of running horses at speed, mainly Thoroughbreds with a rider astride or Standardbreds with the horse pulling a conveyance with a driver.

These two kinds of racing are called racing on the flat and harness racing , respectively. Some races on the flat—such as steeplechase , point-to-point , and hurdle races —involve jumping.

This article is confined to Thoroughbred horse racing on the flat without jumps. Racing on the flat with horses other than Thoroughbreds is described in the article quarter-horse racing. Horse racing is one of the oldest of all sports , and its basic concept has undergone virtually no change over the centuries. It developed from a primitive contest of speed or stamina between two horses into a spectacle involving large fields of runners, sophisticated electronic monitoring equipment, and immense sums of money, but its essential feature has always been the same: In the modern era, horse racing developed from a diversion of the leisure class into a huge public-entertainment business.

The National Museum of Racing. Great Museums Television Early history Knowledge of the first horse race is lost in prehistory. Both four-hitch chariot and mounted bareback races were held in the Olympic Games of Greece over the period —40 bce. Horse racing, both of chariots and of mounted riders, was a well-organized public entertainment in the Roman Empire.

The history of organized racing in other ancient civilizations is not very firmly established. Presumably, organized racing began in such countries as China , Persia, Arabia, and other countries of the Middle East and in North Africa , where horsemanship early became highly developed.

Thence came too the Arabian, Barb, and Turk horses that contributed to the earliest European racing. Such horses became familiar to Europeans during the Crusades 11th—13th century ce , from which they brought those horses back.

In the 17th century James I sponsored meetings in England. His successor, Charles I , had a stud of horses when he died in His articles for these races were the earliest national racing rules. The horses raced were six years old and carried pounds 76 kg , and the winner was the first to win two 4-mile 6. In France the first documented horse race was held in as the result of a wager between two noblemen. During the reign of Louis XIV — , racing based on gambling was prevalent.

Louis XVI reigned —93 organized a jockey club and established rules of racing by royal decree that included requiring certificates of origin for horses and imposing extra weight on foreign horses. Richard Nicolls , commander of the British troops, established organized racing in the colonies by laying out a 2-mile 3.

From the beginning, and continuing until the Civil War, the hallmark of excellence for the American Thoroughbred was stamina, rather than speed. After the Civil War, speed became the goal and the British system the model. Match races The earliest races were match races between two or at most three horses, the owners providing the purse, a simple wager.

Agreements were recorded by disinterested third parties, who came to be called keepers of the match book. One such keeper at Newmarket in England, John Cheny, began publishing An Historical List of All Horse-Matches Run , a consolidation of match books at various racing centres, and this work was continued annually with varying titles, until in James Weatherby established it as the Racing Calendar, which was continued thereafter by his family. Open field racing By the midth century the demand for more public racing had produced open events with larger fields of runners.

Eligibility rules were developed based on the age, sex, birthplace, and previous performance of horses and the qualifications of riders. Races were created in which owners were the riders gentlemen riders , in which the field was restricted geographically to a township or county, and in which only horses that had not won more than a certain amount were entered. Contemporary accounts identified riders in England called jockeys—if professional—from the second half of the 17th century and later in French racing , but their names were not at first officially recorded.

Only the names of winning trainers and riders were at first recorded in the Racing Calendar, but by the late s all were named. Bloodlines and studbooks All horse racing on the flat except quarter-horse racing involves Thoroughbred horses.

Thoroughbreds evolved from a mixture of Arab, Turk, and Barb horses with native English stock. Private studbooks had existed from the early 17th century, but they were not invariably reliable. After a few years of revision, it was updated annually. The long-standing reciprocity among studbooks of various countries was broken in by the Jersey Act passed by the English Jockey Club, which disqualified many Thoroughbred horses bred outside England or Ireland.

The purpose of the act was ostensibly to protect the British Thoroughbred from infusions of North American mainly U. Beginning in , five-year-olds carrying pounds Other racing for four-year-olds was well established by then, and a race for three-year-olds carrying pounds 51 kg in one 3-mile 4. Heat racing for four-year-olds continued in the United States until the s. The modern age of racing The beginning of the modern era of racing is generally considered to have been the inauguration of the English classic races: Leger in , the Oaks in , and the Derby in All were dashes for three-year-olds.

During the 19th century, races of the English classic pattern—dashes for three-year-olds carrying level weights—spread all over the world. Sporting Pictures UK Ltd. Since the establishment of the British and American Triple Crown series, scores of countries have instituted their own less prestigious Triple Crowns of elite races.

Jockey clubs and racing authorities The Jockey Club of Britain , founded at Newmarket about , wrote its own rules of racing. The new rules originally applied only to Newmarket, but, when the rules were printed in the Racing Calendar, they served as a model for rules throughout Britain. Its regulatory powers ended in when governance over British racing was transferred to the Horseracing Regulatory Authority. In power shifted to a new group, the British Horseracing Authority, which formed from a merger of the Horseracing Regulatory Authority and the British Horseracing Board.

France Galop is the organization governing French horse racing. The organization was created in from the merger of three horse racing authorities: In the United States the governance of racing resides in state commissions; track operation is private. It maintains The American Stud Book. English racing spread to Australia , New Zealand , Canada, South Africa , and India in the 19th century, and many of their governing bodies emulated the British.

Thousands of jockey clubs, both local and national, are today present around the world. Most of the national jockey clubs are members of the International Federation of Horseracing Authorities, whose annual conference in Paris reviews racing developments and discusses issues related to breeding, racing, and betting.

The conference is hosted by the Jockey Club de Paris. Handicap racing One major type of Thoroughbred horse race is the handicap race, in which the weights horses must carry during a race are adjusted in relation to their age the more immature the horse, the less weight it carries. In this system, a two-year-old, the youngest racer, competes with less weight to carry than a horse that is three years or older.

In general, a horse is reckoned as being fully aged at five years and is handicapped accordingly. There are also sex allowances for fillies, so that they carry slightly lower weights than males.

Such handicaps may be set centrally where racing is so controlled or by individual tracks, the goal being to render all horses as nearly equal as possible by establishing what is called racing form. The handicap race thus represents an outright repudiation of the classic concept that the best horse should win. Instead, handicaps are assigned with the specific objective of giving all the horses in a race an equal chance of winning.

Some handicap races are major sporting events. For instance, the Melbourne Cup , a handicap inaugurated in , is the most important race of the Southern Hemisphere. In the United States the Metropolitan, Brooklyn, and Suburban handicaps—all dating to the 19th century—were once the most valuable American events and remain reasonably comparable to the classics. In the United States most of the purse money for the richest events offering purses in the millions of dollars is provided by the stakes fees of the owners.

Purses were winner-take-all in the early days of racing, but, as the racing of fields of horses came to predominate, a second prize came to be offered. Gradually, third and fourth prizes were added and occasionally fifth. On the average, modern-day purses are allocated about 60 percent to the winner, 20 percent to the second-place finisher, 12 percent to the third, 6 percent to the fourth, and 2 percent to the fifth-place finisher.

Wagers The same historical progression was followed for wagers, with the bets in early two-horse races being simply to win and modern bets being placed on the first three horses win, place, and show. From private bets, wagering was extended in the 19th century to bookmaking a bookmaker is a professional bet accepter who tries to set his odds so that a percentage is working in his favour.

Later in that century, betting was taken over worldwide by the racetrack managements in the form of the pari-mutuel. This is a common betting pool in which those who bet horses finishing in the first three places share the total amount bet minus a percentage for the management. The pari-mutuel was perfected with the introduction in the 20th century of the totalizator, a machine that mechanically records bets and can provide an almost instant reflection of betting in all pools.

It displays the approximate odds to win on each horse and the total amount of wagering on each horse in each of various betting pools. The customary pools are win, place, and show, and there are such specialty wagers as the daily double winners of the first two races , perfecta win and place winners in order in one race , quiniela as in the perfecta but not in order , and trifecta win, place, and show winners in order in one race.

Other specialty wagers, sometimes offering extremely high payouts, require the bettor to select multiple trifectas, the winners of several races, or the first four horses in one race. As racing became big business, governments entered wagering with offtrack betting, which was very beneficial to racing in Australia, New Zealand, and France and less so in England and New York City.

In the United States, illegal bookmaking offtrack became the province of organized crime. Racing ages A racehorse achieves peak ability at age five, but the classic age of three years and the escalating size of purses, breeding fees, and sale prices have led to fewer races held with horses beyond age four. There are notable exceptions to this, however.

Though artificial insemination and embryo transfer are possible and common in other horse breeds, it is banned with Thoroughbreds. The population of the breed is thereby controlled, assuring a high monetary value for the horses in the process. Because each foal is assigned an official birth date of January 1, to facilitate the age groups that define Thoroughbred races, it is important that mares foal as early as possible in the calendar year.

This assures maximum development time for the foal before training and racing. What breeders learned early in the history of horse racing is that crossing bloodlines can potentially overcome flaws in horses. If, for example, one breed is known for stamina and another known for speed, interbreeding the two might result in a healthy mix of both qualities in their offspring.

Racecourses The ownership of racetracks ranges from complete state control, in which case the national government may own the tracks and horses and employ trainers, jockeys, grooms, and other necessary personnel, to complete private enterprise, as in most of the United States, where tracks are privately owned and operated for profit, as are the horses, and trainers and jockeys are independent contractors.

In-between conditions include government ownership of tracks and in some cases horses, which are leased, and nonprofit privately owned tracks, as in Australia and the New York Racing Association.

The same variety is true of the saddling area, the paddock. Most European and other racing surfaces are grass; in North and South America the common surface is dirt, though grass became increasingly popular in the 20th century.

Synthetic racing surfaces, which routinely drain better than natural surfaces and cause fewer fatal injuries, were increasingly installed at racetracks during the 21st century. Racing takes place mainly in the daytime.


Now pages (22,+ items) on this website!. Thanks to all who contribute. WSP Opus laboratories have a proud history dating back more than 65 years to the New Zealand Ministry of Works when we provided experimental research and testing that assisted the design and construction of major national infrastructure projects, such as hydroelectric power schemes, state highways, airports, railways and marine ports.

Total 1 comments.
There are no comments on this entry....