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Arrows represent general pattern of the migration of Tai-speaking tribes along the rivers and over the lower passes. Khmer people established Khmer empire centered in Angkor in the 9th century. While there are many assumptions regarding the origin of Tai peoples, David K. Initial states of Thailand After the decline of the Khmer Empire in the 13th century, various states thrived there, established by the various Tai peoples , Mons , Khmers , Chams and Ethnic Malays , as seen through the numerous archaeological sites and artifacts that are scattered throughout the Siamese landscape.

Prior to the 12th century however, the first Thai or Siamese state is traditionally considered to be the Buddhist Sukhothai Kingdom , which was founded in Following the decline and fall of the Khmer empire in the 13th15th century, the Buddhist Tai kingdoms of Sukhothai, Lanna , and Lan Xang now Laos were on the rise.

However, a century later, the power of Sukhothai was overshadowed by the new Kingdom of Ayutthaya , established in the midth century in the lower Chao Phraya River or Menam area. Ayutthaya Kingdom Main articles: Ayutthaya Kingdom and Thonburi Kingdom According to the most widely accepted version of its origin, Ayutthaya Kingdom rose from the earlier, nearby Lavo Kingdom and Suvarnabhumi with Uthong as its first king.

Its initial expansion is through conquest and political marriage. Before the end of the 15th century, Ayutthaya invaded Khmer Empire twice and sacked its capital Angkor.

Ayutthaya then became a regional great power in place of Khmer Empire. Borommatrailokkanat brought about bureaucratic reforms which lasted into the 20th century and created a system of social hierarchy called Sakdina. Ayutthaya was interested in Malay peninsula but failed to conquer Malacca Sultanate which was supported by Chinese Ming Dynasty. Siamese envoys presenting letter to Pope Innocent XI , European contact and trade started in the early 16th century, with the envoy of Portuguese duke Afonso de Albuquerque in , followed by the French, Dutch, and English.

Ayutthaya then was at war with Burmese Taungoo Dynasty. Multiple wars starting in the s were ultimately ended with capture of the capital in Then was a period of brief vassalage to Burma until Naresuan proclaimed independence in Ayutthaya was an important trade center which was known to trade with China, India, Persia , and Arab lands.

Trade with the West declined afterwards. Anarchy followed destruction of the former capital, with its territories split into five different factions, each controlled by a warlord. Taksin rose to power and proclaimed Thonburi as temporary capital in the same year. He also quickly subdued the other warlords. His forces engaged in wars with Burma, Laos, and Cambodia, which successfully drove the Burmese out of Lan Na in , captured Vientiane in and tried to install a pro-Thai king in Cambodia in the s.

In his final years there was a coup which was caused by his supposedly "insanity," and eventually Taksin and his sons were executed by longtime companion General Chao Phraya Chakri future Rama I.

Modernization and centralization Main article: Rattanakosin Kingdom Siamese territorial concessions to Britain and France by year Under Rama I , Rattanakosin successfully defended against Burmese attacks and put an end to Burmese invasion.

He also created overlordship over large portions of Laos and Cambodia. In , John Crawfurd was sent on a mission to negotiate a new trade agreement with Siam the first sign of an issue which was to dominate 19th-century Siamese politics. However, Thailand is the only Southeast Asian nation to never have been colonized by any Western power, [40] in part because Britain and France agreed in to make the Chao Phraya valley their buffer state.

Chulalongkorn introduced the Monthon system, where centralized officials were sent to oversee the entire land, thus effectively ending the power of all local dynasties.

There were also major concessions to France and Britain, most notably the loss of a large protectorate territory east of the Mekong composed of present-day Laos and Cambodia and the ceding of four Malay provinces to Britain in Anglo-Siamese Treaty of The bloodless revolution took place in carried out by the Khana Ratsadon group of military and civilian officials resulted in a transition of power, when King Prajadhipok was forced to grant the people of Siam their first constitution, thereby ending centuries of absolute monarchy.

His conflicting view with the government led to abdication. The government selected Ananda Mahidol to be the new king. Later that decade, the military wing of Khana Ratsadon came to dominate Siamese politics. Field Marshall Plaek Phibunsongkhram built fascism , and decreed cultural mandates which changed the name of the kingdom to "Thailand" and affected many aspects of daily life. After France was conquered by Nazi Germany in June , Thailand took the opportunity to retake territories conceded to the French many decades earlier, which Thailand won the majority of the battles.

The conflict came to an end with Japanese mediation. On December 7, , the Empire of Japan launched an invasion of Thailand , and fighting broke out shortly before Phibun ordered an armistice.

Japan was granted free passage, and on December 21, Thailand and Japan signed a military alliance with a secret protocol, wherein Tokyo agreed to help Thailand regain territories lost to the British and French.

Coronation of Bhumibol Adulyadej. In June , young King Ananda was found dead under mysterious circumstances. His younger brother Bhumibol Adulyadej succeeded the throne. Military dictatorships at the time were supported by US government, and Thailand joined anti-communist measures in the region alongside the US, most notably participation in the Vietnam War between and The period brought about increasing modernisation and Westernisation.

Internal conflict regarding economic difficulties which began in led to Thai popular uprising , an important event in Thai modern history. Contemporary history United Front for Democracy Against Dictatorship , Red Shirts, protest in Constant unrest and instability, as well as fear of communist takeover after Fall of Saigon , made some ultra-right groups brand increasingly leftist students as communists. This culminated in Thammasat University massacre in October Another coup in the following year installed a more moderate government, which offered amnesty to communist fighters in The Party abandoned the insurgency by Thailand had its first elected Prime Minister in This caused a popular demonstration in Bangkok, which ended with a military crackdown.

Bhumibol intervened in the event and Suchinda then resigned.


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